AVIATION SECTION•Aviation-1 Overall Corruption•Aviation-2 Corporation Corruption•Aviation-3 Airlines Corruption•Aviation-4 Boeing Corruption•Aviation-5 Parts Corruption•Aviation-6a Crashes (here)•Aviation-6b 1979 AA Flight 191•Aviation-7 Union•Aviation-8 Links List•See also TWA 800•9/11 start with 1-General•Port Authority•LabsoLos Alamos LabsoSandia Labs (Lockheed and latest Honeywell) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------START HEREDaily Motion a video of American Airlines 191 but gives a good run-down of catastrophic crash sites and subsequent investigationshttps://www.dailymotion.com/video/x64oq8m[extracted from INternet on 2021/02/19]Note: This section on airline crashes and related incidents is in no way comprehensive - several good websites exist with detailed lists of crashes elsewhere. Rather, this section focuses on a few with varied levels of attention spent on articles that were generated by the incidents. Notice more time is spent on engines on this website - both manufacturer corruption and crash-related incidents. Just remember many parts of a plane can go wrong, not just engines, lap joints and rudders, the subjects highlighted here. We quickly discover highly disturbing information about how things can go wrong involving engines after just a few readings on crashes. Things like engines falling off! And explosions! And fire! The explosions are often caused by certain failures in internal engine parts and can initially be heard as a thump or bang. The fires might start with an explosion, but problems are often compounded by materials which feed the fire like explosion/crash related fuel spills and dry combustible material off the plane itself, like from the nearby fuselage or wings.Boeing craft - crashesPacific Western Airlines 314/Boeing 737-200 (02/11/1978) Far Easter Air Transport/Boeing 737-200 (08/22/1981) Cameroon Airlines/Boeing 737-200 (08/30/1984) JAL 123/Boeing 747SR (08/12/1985) United Airlines 585/Boeing 737-291 (03/03/1991) US AIR 427/Boeing 737-300 (09/08/1994) Sudan Airways/Boeing 737-200c series (07/09/2003)Flash Airlines 604/Boeing 737-300 (01/03/2004)Helios 522/Boeing 737-300 (08/14/2005)Boeing Other Flight Issues (ie, repair issues with almost-crashes) Other Boeing Flight Issues Pacific Western Airlines Flight 501/Boeing 737-275 (03/22/1984) American Airlines 383/Boeing 767 (right engine uncontained failure with severe fire, aborted takeoff, 20 injured(10/2016)Singapore Airlines 368/Boeing 777-312ER (engine oil leak, in flight turned back, on landing, right engine caught fire, all passengers evacuated with no injuries) (06/27/2016)Korean Air 2708/Boeing 777-300 (left engine “uncontained failure with substantial fire” aborted takeoff) (05/27/2016) Southwest Airlines 812/Boeing 737-300 (lap joint/fuselage issue, emergency landing) (04/01/2011)Southwest Airlines 2294/Boeing 737-3HR (lap joint/fuselage issue, emergency landing) (07/13/2009)Boeing 787 list of engine related incidents (2013 to 2017)Boeing 777 list of engine related incidents Boeing 767s and 9/11: United Airlines 175/Boeing 767-200 Boston (Logan International Airport) to Los Angeles (Lost Angeles International Airport) reported as crashed into South Tower; and American Airlines/Boeing 767 223ER Boston to Los Angeles, reported as crashed into North TowerNon-Boeing crashes (a few mentioned here if they seem applicable in some way):American Airlines 587/Airbus A300-600 (11/12/2001)American Airlines 191/McDonnell Douglas DC10-10 (05/25/1979)United Airlines 232/DC-10 crash landed, catastrophic failure of tail-mounted engine causing loss of all flight controls;planed landed w/o conventional control; 111/296 died. (07/19/1989)Websites with lists of aircraft crashes and incidents:https //www aeroinside comhttp//wwwairsafecomhttps //en wikipedia org/wiki/List_of_accidents_and_incidents_involving_commercial_aircraftCRASHES - BOEINGAirliner Crashes - ArticlesAmerican Airlines 383/Boeing 767CNN2016/10/29 At Chicago O'Hare, American Airlines 767 catches fire on runway. By Steve Almasy, Jon Ostrower, Rene Marshhttp//wwwcnncom/2016/10/28/us/ohare-aircraft-incident/indexhtmlNegroni (Christine)http//christinenegronicom/engine-took-767-aa-flight-383-photos/Excerpt: The National Transportation Safety Board’s Lorenda Ward said the failure was in the engine’s second stage disk and Aviation Week reported that was a first-ever, though first stage engine failures have occurred a number of times including on another American Airlines 767 in 2006. What seems to have caused the phenomenal fire damage on Flight 383 was debris penetrating the fuel tank, providing a source of fuel to the fire. The engine spewed debris with such velocity, material was found a half a mile away according to Ward.http //christinenegroni com/engine-took-767-aa-flight-383-photos/UPI American Airlines [383/ 767 catches fire at Chicago’s Ohare revives memories of ‘79 disasterhttps //www upi com/Top_News/US/2016/10/28/American-Airlines-767-catches-fire-at-Chicagos-OHare-revives-memories-of-79-disaster/8701477685781JAL 123 Crash (August 12, 1985) Boeing 747SRFAALessons LearnedNote: There is a lot of material worth reading on this page. Here is a brief excerpt: Improper RepairMore than seven years prior to the accident, on June 2, 1978, the airplane experienced a severe tail strike incident during landing at Osaka, Japan. Several aft fuselage frames, skin, and the aft pressure bulkhead were substantially damaged, and 25 passengers were injured. At the time of the incident, the airplane had 16,200 hours and 12,300 cycles. The airline contracted to a Boeing Airplane-On-Ground (AOG) team to disposition the aircraft and perform the damage repair.http //lessonslearned faa gov/ll_main.cfm?TabID=4&LLID=16&LLTypeID=2The Guardian1985/08/13 524 killed in worst single air disasterUS to investigate crash of American-made Japanese Boeing 747. By Harold Jacksonhttps //www theguardian com/fromthearchive/story/0,,1017027,00 htmlExcerpt: Two United States Government investigators were last night travelling to Japan in an effort to find the cause of the worst air crash involving a single aircraft. Japan Air Lines said that 524 passengers and crew, including 21 non-Japanese, were feared killed when one of its Boeing 747 jets crashed into mountainous terrain north-west of Tokyo. Flight 123, flying a domestic route from Tokyo to Osaka, apparently veered off course shortly after taking off for its 60-minute journey. It was hundreds of miles away from its planned route when it came down. Early today, 70 paratroopers descended on ropes from helicopters to start hunting through the wreckage. But Defence ministry officials said there was no sign of survivors. About another 1,000 emergency workers were trying to reach the scene on foot.https //www theguardian com/fromthearchive/story/0,,1017027,00 htmlThe Last Boeing Inspector Crashes because of rollerstampinghttp //www thelastboeinginspector com/crashes-because-of-rollerstamping htmlLA Times747 Survivor Tells of Jet Breaking Up : Sections of Ceiling Fell; JAL Craft 'Weaved Wildly'. By Sam Jameson (08/15/1985)http //articles latimes com/1985-08-15/news/mn-1597_1_tail-finJapan TimesU.S. leaked crucial Boeing repair flaw that led to 1985 JAL jet crash: ex-officials. BY Toyohiro Horikoshi (08/11/2015)http //www japantimes co jp/news/2015/08/11/national/history/u-s-leaked-crucial-boeing-repair-flaw-led-1985-jal-jet-crash-ex-officials/Telegraph JAL 123 the crash that made outcasts of my children. By Jeff Gilbert (08/12/2009)http //www telegraph co uk/news/uknews/6010716/Japan-Airlines-Flight-123-The-crash-that-made-outcasts-of-my-children htmlWikipediaJapan Airlines Flight 123https //en wikipedia org/wiki/Japan_Airlines_Flight_123 Youtubehttps //www youtube com/watch?v=QKENZWQKkz0US AIR 427 Crash (September 8, 1994) Boeing 737-300. Apparent cause of crash: rudder malfunction, went hard-over (See Seattle Times below for definition of hard-over).Excerpt :The plaintiffs' lawyers were prepared to present evidence at trial that officials with Boeing and Parker-Hannifin Corp., the valve's manufacturer, were aware of rudder valve problems in October 1992 and failed to correct the problem, Smith said. My thought is that this is a crash that should have never happened," Smith added. http://www.corboydemetrio.com/newsroom-news-113Chicago Tribune1994/09/10 Names and occupations of crash victims on US Air 427 Note: some possible trends - people in the same occupation, are noted here. As a listed accident, we generally don’t look for trends of occupants, and like employers might just simply mean accidental correspondence or company- sponsored business trips. These are just a few, that came immediately to attention, notice Dept. of Energy and PNC Bank have several. There are several engineers, chemists, energy types and other scientists listed. In the case of internationally based, anti-American conspiracy, a known plane defect could be a form of hidden sabotage to remove certain people or groups. Sabotage could also be about competition between corporations. Links between PNC bankers and scientists in this case would need to be questioned. People “more in the know” might be able to see other connections between the occupants of this flight beyond this shallow, cursory observation found by merely going down the list of passengers and seeing their occupations.DOE: Arrigoni, Thomas, 49, Department of Energy, McMurray, Pa.; Dellefield, Randall J., 37, Department of Energy, Morgantown, W.Va; Evans, Robert, 52, Department of Energy manager, Venetia, Pa. Heintz, Steven, 41, Department of Energy manager, Mars, Pa. Langan, William T., 57, Department of Energy, Morgantown, W.Va; Mayfield, Manville, 68, Department of Energy, Morgantown, W.Va.; McIlvried, Timothy, 32, Department of Energy, Library, Pa. Peters, William, 54, Department of Energy, Canonsburg, Pa. PNC Bank: Flaherty, Kevin, 35, PNC Bank, Mars, Pa.; Lindstrom, Gerald R., 60, PNC Bank, Pittsburgh; Lynn, Kirk D., 26, PNC Bank; Santamaria, Frank, 37, PNC Bank, Pittsburgh Greensburg, Pa.;Stamos, Janet, 40, PNC Bank, Pittsburgh; Taylor, Jocelyn P., 35, PNC Bank, Pittsburgh; Garmhausen, Richard, 33, engineer, USX Corp., Bernard, Harry, 49, USX Corp., Pittsburgh; Pittsburgh; Raykin, Eugene, 27, scientist, USX Corp., Monroevillle, Pa.; Center for Energy and Economic Development:: Ziska Michele, 36, marketing coordinator, Center for Energy and Economic Development, Bridgeville, Pa.; Wiles, Edwin, 50, Center for Energy and Economic Development, Pittsburghhttp //articles chicagotribune com/1994-09-10/news/9409100136_1_usx-corp-ampco-pittsburgh-corp-chicago-areaCorboy Demetrio Accords in '94 USAIR Crash Top $48 MILLION"Excerpt: Four settlements totaling more than $48 million, including one for a record $25.2 million, have been reached in lawsuits arising from the 1994 crash of a USAir flight near Pittsburgh, plaintiff attorneys said…The settlements will be paid by insurers for The Boeing Co., the aircraft's manufacturer, and USAir Inc., Demetrio said.The National Transportation Safety Board earlier this year determined that rudder reversal" led to the crash when a malfunctioning rudder valve deflected the rudder in a direction opposite to the pilot's command, according to the plaintiffs' attorneys. The deflection caused the pilots to lose control of the plane, which spiraled to the ground, crashing into a ravine and bursting into flames. The plaintiffs' lawyers were prepared to present evidence at trial that officials with Boeing and Parker-Hannifin Corp., the valve's manufacturer, were aware of rudder valve problems in October 1992 and failed to correct the problem, Smith said. My thought is that this is a crash that should have never happened," Smith added. http //www corboydemetrio com/newsroom-news-113Newsweek 1994/09/18 The Mystery of USAIR 427. By “Newsweek Staff.” http //www newsweek com/mystery-usair-427-188302Early conjectures as to why the plane went down. Excerpt: Investigators will clearly be looking for similarities between the Pittsburgh and Colorado Springs crashes. One potential culprit is what is known as the power control unit, a hydraulic system that governs the plane's rudder and elevators. The rudder is the vertical flap on the tail; it makes the airplane turn. The elevators are the horizontal flaps on a plane's rear wings; they make the aircraft rise or dive. It is unlikely that Flight 427 would have gone into so steep and sustained a dive without some malfunction of the elevator controls. Though there are clear differences between the two crashes, both 737s suffered an unexplained roll just moments before they began to dive. Another suspect is what are known as "thrust reversers" on the plane's jet engines. Thrust reversers are used to slow the plane after it has touched down. But NTSB officials said at least one of Flight 427's 12 thrust reversers had been deployed; if others had been deployed as well, they said, that could have had "catastrophic consequences" to the plane's stability.http //www newsweek com/mystery-usair-427-188302NTSB Uncontrolled Descent and Collision With Terrain, USAir Flight 427, Boeing 737-300, N513AUhttps://www.ntsb.gov/investigations/AccidentReports/Pages/AAR9901.aspxExcerpt: Probable Cause: The National Transportation Safety Board determines that the probable cause of the USAir flight 427 accident was a loss of control of the airplane resulting from the movement of the rudder surface to its blowdown limit. The rudder surface most likely deflected in a direction opposite to that commanded by the pilots as a result of a jam of the main rudder power control unit servo valve secondary slide to the servo valve housing offset from its neutral position and overtravel of the primary slide.https://www.ntsb.gov/investigations/AccidentReports/Pages/AAR9901.aspxNew York TImes Crash of Flight 427: The Crash Site; 'A Horrifying Scene of Destruction' Leaves Emergency Crews Shaken. By John Kifner (09/10/1994)http://www.nytimes.com/1994/09/10/us/crash-flight-427-crash-site-horrifying-scene-destruction-leaves-emergency-crews.htmlPost GazetteTwo decades after Boeing 737 airline disaster, support group likely to disband. By Matthew P. Smith (2014)http://www.post-gazette.com/local/region/2014/09/07/USAir-Flight-427-20-years-later/stories/201409070272SF Gate 1995/01/24 Final Seconds on USAir Flight 427 / Pilots' desperate exclamations revealed in transcript. [note: Seattle Times article of 10/1996 also has transcript excerpt] By Alyssa Gabbay Very brief vocal utterances from pilot and co-pilot. Early conjectures of what caused crash: Excerpt: Among the areas to be examined is the possibility of a rudder malfunction. USAir has warned pilots of its Boeing 737s to watch out for spontaneous rudder movements during flights. The rudder, a large vertical tail slab, moves a plane left or right.http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/Final-Seconds-on-USAir-Flight-427-Pilots-3048057.phpSeattle Times 1996/10/29 Pittsburgh disaster adds to 737 doubts: A debate over safety has embroiled Boeing's 737. Today, a look at discoveries about the 737's rudder-control system and at Boeing's pressure to blame the pilots after the Pittsburgh 737 crash two years ago. http //old seattletimes com/news/local/737/part03/Excerpt: That's the moment investigators believe Flight 427's rudder moved suddenly to its extreme left - a movement known as a "hardover," which is not supposed to happen while a 737 is in the air - and locked in that position. In the next four seconds, the jet peeled off to the left, like a fighter plane in a World War II movie. Then it rolled upside down and began falling out of the darkening sky, nose pointed almost straight down.http //old seattletimes com/news/local/737/part03/WikipediaUS AIr Flight 427Excerpt: After the longest investigation in the history of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), it was determined that the probable cause was that the aircraft's rudder malfunctioned and went hard-over in a direction opposite to that commanded by the pilots, causing the plane to enter an aerodynamic stall from which the pilots were unable to recover. All 132 people on board the aircraft were killed.https //en wikipedia org/wiki/USAir_Flight_427United Airlines 585 Crash (March 3, 1991) Boeing 737-291Wikipedia United Airlines Flight 585https //en wikipedia org/wiki/United_Airlines_Flight_585Tailstrikehttps //www tailstrike com/030391 htmNew York TImes 1991/03/04 Jetliner crash in Colorado kills all 25 people aboardhttp //www nytimes com/1991/03/04/us/jetliner-crash-in-colorado-kills-all-25-people-aboard htmlLiveleakhttps //www liveleak com/view?i=01b_1393869548LA Times 1991/03/05 Colorado Springshttp //articles.latimes.com/1991-03-05/news/mn-253_1_colorado-springsNTSB Final Report on the 1991 crash of United AIrlines Flight 585 in Colorado Springs, Coloradohttps //wwwntsb gov/news/press-releases/Pages/NTSB_adopts_revised_final_report_on_the_1991_crash_of_United_Airlines_Flight_585_in_Colorado_Springs_CO.;_calls aspxPacific Western Airlines Crash Boeing 737-200 (02/11/1978)Airsafehttp://www.airsafe.com/events/models/b737.htmExcerpt: Pacific Western Airlines 737-200; Cranbrook Airport, Canada: The aircraft crashed after thrust reversers did not fully stow following a rejected landing that was executed in order to avoid a snowplow. The crash killed four of the crew members and 38 of the 44 passengers.http://www.airsafe.com/events/models/b737.htmFar Eastern Air Transport Crash (08/22/1981)Airsafehttp://www.airsafe.com/events/models/b737.htm22 August 1981; Far Eastern Air Transport 737-200; near Sanyi, Taiwan: The aircraft experienced in flight structural failure. The crash killed all six crew members and 104 passengers.http://www.airsafe.com/events/models/b737.htmCameroon Airlines Crash; Boeing 737-200 (08/30/1984)Airsafehttp://www.airsafe.com/events/models/b737.htmExcerpt: Douala, Cameroon: While on the ground, one of the engines had an uncontained failure which ruptured a fuel tank and started fire. Two of the 108 passengers were killed.http://www.airsafe.com/events/models/b737.htmSudan Airways/Boeing 737 (07/2003)http://www.nytimes.com/2003/07/09/world/116-are-killed-in-plane-crash-in-sudan-a-small-boy-survives.html?mcubz=2Flash Airlines 604/Boeing 737-300 - (01/03/2004)All 142 passengers (133 of whom were French tourists) and all 6 crew killed, Egypt to Paris, crashed into Red Sea shortly after take-offhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flash_Airlines_Flight_604http://aviationknowledge.wikidot.com/asi:flash-airlines-flight-604-spatial-disorientationhttps://www.tailstrike.com/030104.htmhttp://www.cbsnews.com/news/148-perish-in-egyptian-plane-crash/http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/3365721.stmhttps://www.liveleak.com/view?i=0f1_1234030685Helios Airways 522/Boeing 737-300All passengers and crew killedhttps //en wikipedia org/wiki/Helios_Airways_Flight_522BOEING INCIDENTS: OTHERflight Issues: On-ground destruction (like explosion/fire before take-off on runway) or issue; Without a full crash; Without casualties, or with fewer casualtiesPhiladelphia 2018 Boeing 737-700Philly: Southwest NTSB Engine Failure http //www philly com/philly/business/transportation/southwest-ntsb-engine-failure-philly-investigation-20181114 htmlExcerpt: As they struggled to keep Jennifer Riordan, 43, inside the plane, a passenger reached out of the window and grasped the woman's shoulder. The pressure had begun to equalize, and the passenger pulled in her arm, then her head. Injuries to the New Mexico mother of two would prove fatal.New details about the Boeing 737-700 that lost an engine about 50 miles from Philadelphia emerged from a trove of documents released by the National Transportation Safety Board before a 9 a.m. hearing Wednesday in Washingtonhttp://www.philly.com/philly/business/transportation/southwest-ntsb-engine-failure-philly-investigation-20181114.html787 List of IncidentsBoeing’s much-touted 787 Dreamliners also raised concern this year after a lithium-ion battery caught fire on a plane parked in Boston. Another burning battery forced an emergency landing in Japan, USA Today reports.New York Daily News 2013/07/06 By Carol Kurvillahttp //www nydailynews com/news/national/san-francisco-crash-latest-year-full-bad-news-boeing-article-1.1391993Boeing 787-800 incidents involving engine related problemspartial list from Aeroinside dot com. Notice several of the issues were leaks or other warnings that required a shut down of one of the engines and a turn-back to the original airport or a diversion to another nearby airport. An earlier articleAeroinside dot comhttps //www aeroinside com/incidents/type/b788/boeing-787-8-dreamlinerNorwegian Air Shuttle/787-800 Dreamliner; engine oil leak prompted manual shut-off of engine, flight turn-back, landing/repair no incident, check reported as wrong reading about engine oil leak, no injuries (07/23/2017) (engine type Trent 1000)Norwegian Air Shuttle 787-800 engine shut down in flight because of technical warning, diversion, safe landing, no injuries. (07/16/2017) (engine type Trent 1000)Norwegian Air Shuttle 787-800 engine oil quantity issue, engine manually shut down in flight, turn-back, safe landing, no injuries. (06/11/2017) (engine type Trent 1000)Thompson Airways 787-800 (GEnx) Shut left hand engine down, fire warnings seemed faulty later, safe landing, no injuries (06/102017)Norwegian 787-800 (Trent 1000) engine was climbing out of runway on way out, flight stopped after the right hand engine emitted two loud bangs, streaks of flames and caused two jolts,engine immediate return landing, no injuries, people on ground confirmed bangs and smoke/flames observed from people on the plane (05/22/2017)Polish Airlines 787-800 (Trent 1000), turn-back, safe landing, no injuries (05/11/2017)All Nippon: engine vibrations (08/30/2016)All Nippon: was accelerating the engines for takeoff from Narita's runway 34L when the left hand engine (Trent 1000) failed with a loud bang prompting the crew to reject takeoff at low speed (about 20 knots). The aircraft returned to the apron, metal debris reportedly blades from the engine needed to be removed from the runway.08/14/2016Air India engine shut down in flight (01/19/2015)British Airways engine shut down in flight (01/08/2015)Royal Jordanian: engine problem (12/16/2014)All Nippon: engine oil indication (10/06/2014)Thompson Airways engine shut down in flight (08/05/2014)Qatar engine problems 08/06/2014All Nippon engine anti-ice failure 07/06/2014)JAL 787-800 engine shut down in flight (03/08/2014)United 787-800 engine oil, engine shut down (06/18/2013)United engine oil indication 787-800 (06/20/2013)JAL 787-800 engine anti-ice problem (06/11/2013)https://www.aeroinside.com/incidents/type/b788/boeing-787-8-dreamlinerBoeing 777s list of engine related incidentsAirsafe dot com: 777shttp://www.airsafe.com/events/models/b777.htmBritish Airways 38/Boeing 777-200ER 01/17/2008Right engine of ceased responding to autothrottle commands for increased power and instead the power reduced on both engines. This reduction led to a loss of airspeed and the aircraft touched about1000 feet (330m) short of the runway.This was the first serious accident for the 777 since it began commercial service in 1995….The loss of engine control was due to a fuel system blockage caused by ice that formed in the fuel system. British Airways 2276/Boeing 777-200 (09/08/2015)Left engine apparently failed and caught fire prior to takeoff. There was evidence of an uncontained fairlure of the left engine and pylon, including multiple breaches of the engine case in the area around the high pressure compressor. http://www.airsafe.com/events/models/b777.htmBritish Airtours Flight 28M/Boeing 737-236 (08/22/1985) Engine issue: take-off aborted due to engine failureWikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Airtours_Flight_28MThe Guardianhttps://www.theguardian.com/world/1985/aug/23/transport.ukKorean Airhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_Air_Flight_2708American Airlines/Boeing 767-223ER (06/02/2006) Engine problems - Maintenance run with crew - Engine type (GE) CF6-80ANo. 1 engine lag, rupture/burst after grounded and testedNTSB dot govExcerpt: On June 2, 2006, an American Airlines Boeing 767-223(ER), N330AA, equipped withGeneral Electric (GE) CF6-80A engines experienced an uncontained failure1 of the high pressure. Turbine (HPT) stage 1 disk2 in the No. 1 (left) engine during a high-power ground run for maintenance at Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), Los Angeles, California (see figure 1 for a diagram of a GE CF6-80A engine). The three maintenance personnel on board the airplaneas well as the observer on the ground were not injured. Both engines and the airplane sustainedsubstantial damagehttps://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/recletters/A06_60_64.pdfAviation-Safety dot net Excerpt: American Airlines Boeing 767 N330AA flew as flight AA201 from New York-JFK (JFK) to Los Angeles (LAX). During a step climb from FL360 to FL380 en route to LAX, the pilots noted that the No. 1 engine was lagging the right engine by about 2 percent. The flight landed at LAX at 09:37. After the passengers had disembarked, the plane was towed to hangar no. 2 and was parked outside. Maintenance personnel were going to conducting a ground run to troubleshoot the reported discrepancy. Several engine runups to maximum power were performed on both engines. Then they did two runups to max power of just the no. 1 engine. When retarding the throttle to idle, the engine experienced an uncontained rupture of the high pressure turbine (HPT) stage 1 disk. Debris punctured the fuselage and fell onto adjacent runway and taxiways. Runway 25R and Taxiways B and C were closed for several hours until the investigation and collection of the debris could be accomplished. The engine caught fire and the plane sustained significant damage to the left wing, fuselage, and tail section.Probable Cause: PROBABLE CAUSE: "The HPT stage 1 disk failed from an intergranular fatigue crack because of GE's inadequate design of the CF6-80 series HPT stage 1 disk. The inadequate design of the disk resulted in a high stress area in the blade slot bottom aft corner that was at or nearly at the material's capability so that there was no damage tolerance such that a small dent could cause a crack to initiate and propagate to failure.https://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20060602-0Pacific Western Airlines Flight 501/Boeing 737-275 03/22/1984 (problem on takeoff - faulty compressor disc, caused fire)From Wikipedia (below): The fire was attributed to a faulty compressor disc that blew apart, rupturing the fuel tanks. This incident was similar to the cause of the British Airtours Flight 28M disaster that claimed 55 lives in 1985. 27 Injuries (5 serious), no fatalities.WikipediaPacific Western Airlines Flight 501https //en wikipedia org/wiki/Pacific_Western_Airlines_Flight_501ASN/Aviation Safety NetworkPacific Western Airlines Flight 501 Boeing 737-275 https //aviation-safety net/database/record php?id=19840322-0Non-Boeing crashes (a few mentioned here if they seem applicable in some way)AIRBUSAmerican Airlines Flight 587Airbus A300-600 11/12/2001: (full+ fatalities) (reason given for crash: vertical stabilizer associated with rudder snapped off - from overuse of rudder; 2 engines separated from aircraft)From Wikipedia: Terrorism was officially ruled out as the cause by the National Transportation Safety Board, which instead attributed the disaster to the first officer's overuse of rudder controls in response to wake turbulence, or jet wash, from a Japan Airlines Boeing 747-400 that took off minutes before it. According to the NTSB, this aggressive use of the rudder controls by the co-pilot caused the vertical stabilizer to snap off the plane. The plane's two engines also separated from the aircraft before it hit the groundWND: Flight 587 was no accident: http://mobile.wnd.com/2001/11/11721/https //en wikipedia org/wiki/American_Airlines_Flight_587MCDONNELL DOUGLAS (later merged with Boeing in 1997) AMERICAN AIRLINESHistory of American Airlines1930 The Aviation Corporation rebranded American AirwaysAmerican Airways was made of four smaller airlines with ties to Texas (Southern Air Transport), New York (Colonial Air Transport), Chicago (Embry-Riddle) - See D Magazine-1979/07 below1934 renamed American AIrlinesEarly American Airlines-Douglas connection was DC-32001 TWA purchased2011 filed bankruptcy protection2013 merged with US AIrwaysBig Changes for AA around period of time (late 1978-1979) of May 25, 1979 Flt 191 crash1978-1979 Tax Bond Issues involving move AA headquartersfrom New York to Dallas Fort Worth, TexasD Magazine1979/07 HOW WE GOT AMERICAN AIRLINES. By Rowland Stitelerhttps://www.dmagazine.com/publications/d-magazine/1979/july/how-we-got-american-airlines/Excerpt: The Internal Revenue Service was going to kill the deal that would bring American Airlines’ corporate headquarters to D-FW Airport, even though the deal had already been signed. A mid-level 1RS bureaucrat was going to rule retroactively that the $147 million worth of Dallas-Fort Worth Regional Airport bonds sold to finance the airline’s new national headquarters were not eligible for tax-free status. The tax-free bonds were the sole reason that American’s move from New York City to Texas was possible.…. It is a popular belief in Fort Worth that Amon Carter Sr. started the airline. Actually, Amon Carter was one of the founders of American Airways in 1930. The airline grew out of the merger of four smaller air carriers, including the Texas-based Southern Air Transport. Among the others absorbed into American Airways were Colonial Air Transport, which flew between Boston and New York, and Embry-Riddle, which flew between Cincinnati and Chicago. The company was a national firm from its birth. Its headquarters were in Chicago. It would later move to New York after changing its name to American Airlines. Carter had considerable holdings in American because of his investment in Southern Air and was one of the early board members. Carter used his clout with American Airlines as he used everything else – to promote Fort Worth.1979/07--https://www.dmagazine.com/publications/d-magazine/1979/july/how-we-got-american-airlines/Timeline of AA HistoryDallas News2013/02/14 A timeline of events in American Airlines' history. By Travis Hudsonhttps://www.dallasnews.com/business/airlines/2013/02/14/a-timeline-of-events-in-american-airlines-history/Wikipediahttps //en wikipedia org/wiki/American_AirlinesExcerpt: American Airlines was started in 1930 via a union of more than eighty small airlines. The two organizations from which American Airlines was originated were Robertson Aircraft Corporation and Colonial Air Transport. The former was first created in Missouri in 1921, with both being merged in 1929 into holding company The Aviation Corporation. This, in turn, was made in 1930 into an operating company and rebranded as American Airways. In 1934, when new laws and attrition of mail contracts forced many airlines to reorganize, the corporation redid its routes into a connected system and was renamed American Airlines. Between 1970 and 2000, the company grew into being an international carrier, purchasing Trans World Airlines in 2001.American had a direct role in the development of the DC-3, which resulted from a marathon telephone call from American Airlines CEO C. R. Smith to Donald Douglas, when Smith persuaded a reluctant Douglas to design a sleeper aircraft based on the DC-2 to replace American's Curtiss Condor II biplanes. (The existing DC-2's cabin was 66 inches (1.7 m) wide, too narrow for side-by-side berths.) Douglas agreed to go ahead with development only after Smith informed him of American's intention to purchase 20 aircraft. The prototype DST (Douglas Sleeper Transport) first flew on December 17, 1935, (the 32nd anniversary of the Wright Brothers' flight at Kitty Hawk). Its cabin was 92 in (2.3 m) wide, and a version with 21 seats instead of the 14–16 sleeping berths of the DST was given the designation DC-3. There was no prototype DC-3; the first DC-3 built followed seven DSTs off the production line and was delivered to American Airlines. American Airlines inaugurated passenger service on June 26, 1936, with simultaneous flights from Newark, New Jersey, and Chicago, Illinois.In 2011, due to a downturn in the airline industry, American Airlines' parent company AMR Corporation filed for bankruptcy protection. In 2013, American Airlines merged with US Airways but kept the American Airlines name, as it was the better-recognized brand internationally; the combination of the two airlines resulted in the creation of the largest airline in the United States, and ultimately the world.https //en wikipedia org/wiki/American_AirlinesUpdates: 2021/02/21 D Magazine-1979/07 article added; 2021/02/20 1919 separate page added; History of American Airlines added; 191 Crash Highlight Section added to earlier smaller inserts area on 191; Chicagomag-2019 was added. 2021/02/04 This section had been moved from rivergold dot net recently. There was some deferred editing to get it more in line witht he format on policefactor dot com. Most, if not all, of the links have been deactivated on this page as part of an ongoing project to deactivate links all throughout the website.
AVIATION-6a CRASHES (here)•Aviation-6a (Links List for Crashes•Boeing crashes •Boeing incidents •Non-Boeing crashes •McDonnell Douglas•History of American Airlines •Websites with crashes