AVIATION SECTION•Aviation-1 Overall Corruption•Aviation-2 Corporation Corruption•Aviation-3 Airlines Corruption•Aviation-4 Boeing Corruption•Aviation-5 Parts Corruption•Aviation-6a Crashes•Aviation-6b 1979 AA Flight 191 (here)•Aviation-7 Union•Aviation-8 Links List•See also TWA 800•9/11 start with 1-General•Port Authority•LabsoLos Alamos LabsoSandia Labs (Lockheed and latest Honeywell) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------START HEREDaily Motion a video of American Airlines 191 but gives a good run-down of catastrophic crash sites and subsequent investigationshttps //www dailymotion com/video/x64oq8m[extracted from INternet on 2021/02/19]COMMENTSNote: This section on airline crashes and related incidents is in no way comprehensive - several good websites exist with detailed lists of crashes elsewhere. Rather, this section focuses on a few with varied levels of attention spent on articles that were generated by the incidents. Notice more time is spent on engines on this website - both manufacturer corruption and crash-related incidents. Just remember many parts of a plane can go wrong, not just engines, lap joints and rudders, the subjects highlighted here. We quickly discover highly disturbing information about how things can go wrong involving engines after just a few readings on crashes. Things like engines falling off! And cut off electrical and hydraulic lines with subsequent lack of communications and wing flap extension control! And explosions! And fire! The explosions are often caused by certain failures in internal engine parts and can initially be heard as a thump or bang. The fires might start with an explosion, but problems are often compounded by materials which feed the fire like a recent fill-up of jet fule, explosion/crash related fuel spills and dry combustible material off the plane itself, like from the fuselage or wings.HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVEBackground - 1970s Aviation Erahttps://sites.google.com/site/exploringtheseventies/home/culture-society/air-travel-in-the-1970sHistorical Focus: FLIGHT 191 CRASH 1979 O’HARE AIRPORT CHICAGOSee Also Aviation-1 Airports Stateside O’Hare History HighlightWhat is/was a CcDonnell Douglas DC-10?It is an American wide-body airliner manufactured by McDonnell Douglas. The DC-10 was intended to succeed the DC-8 for long range flights. It first flew on August 29, 1970; and was introduced on August 5, 1971 by American Airlines.American AIrllnes Flight 191McDonnell Douglas DC10; 05/25/1979One-way from Chicago to LA; The crash had killed all 258 passengers and 13 crew members on board and two more people on the ground. It was the worst aviation accident in U.S. history and remains so today [as of Chicagomag-2019 article]Attributed to faulty maintenance at American Airlines: left engine No. 1 fell off shortly after take-off; the issue is associated with pylons and hardpoint mountings. A hardpoint in this case is where the engine is attached on the wing. A pylon is an adaptor between the plane itself and the object being carried (the engine).NTSB investigators concluded that the cause was a shortcut American Airlines mechanics had taken reattaching an engine. From Chicagomag-2019/05:Excerpt: Specifically, after an across-the-fleet replacement of a faulty engine pylon, they had used a forklift to reconnect engines to their wings, when a more precise crane was needed. The forklift, however, was faster and therefore cheaper. Eight weeks before the crash, workers had used a forklift on Flight 191’s left engine. Over time, with the vibrations of each flight, the extra stress from the procedural shortcut caused a small crack in the flange securing the engine to the wing. The crack eventually grew to nearly 13 inches. When the plane reached takeoff speed that day, the engine simply snapped off, rolling up and over the left wing. In the process, it ripped away part of the leading edge of the wing, cutting the hydraulic lines and power to vital instruments in the cockpit, including communications with the control tower and, most crucially, the stall warning….Era as a Whole (Mostly the 1970s decade, a little beyond)History of period of time1979 oil crisis - second in decade-Iran hostage incident coming up in November-Iran-Iraq War on horizon starting in 1980-Iran Revolution recent 78-79 https://www.britannica.com/event/Iranian-Revolution-of-1978-1979Yom Kippur War brief but significant 73 anti-Israeli Middle Eastern coalitionOPEC issues with USA-Vietnam officially over just a short 4 years previously; war lasted November 1, 1955 – April 30, 1975https://www.newhistorian.com/opec-1979-oil-shock/2423/ Excerpt: OPEC was founded in 1960 by Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Venezuela and Saudi Arabia, with other countries joining over the years, leading to its current twelve members. The enormous power it could wield internationally was first demonstrated in 1973. In resentment of Western support of Israel in the Yom Kippur War, the OPEC countries issued an oil embargo. This saw the price of oil jump from $17 a barrel to $55 in the space of a year. Since its formation, OPEC had been steadily increasing oil production year on year. From 1973 however, production remained constant for six years, to support the artificial price increase.-Watergate earlier in decade 72-73 <http://watergate.info/-Nixon resigned earlier in decade 8/74-Three> Mile Island incident-Jimmy Carter presidentThe first oil crisis of the 1970s was the direct result of OPEC’s actions, while the second was a consequence of domestic events in Iran, the disruption of which OPEC tried to reduce. What was clear from both events however, was the massive role OPEC could play in deciding the price of oil, and the very real effects the availability of oil could have in Western countriesBRICK WALL NAME MEMORIALThe brick wall — half hidden by trees, the plaque at its center reading “We Remember Flight 191” — had appeared only relatively recently. It had taken more than 30 years for someone to come up with the idea, then two years of lobbying by an assistant principal and students in the 2010 sixth-grade class at Decatur Classical School in West Rogers Park to get the memorial approved. The assistant principal’s parents had been on the flight.Wikipedia: American Airlines Flight 191https //en wikipedia org/wiki/American_Airlines_Flight_191Chicagomag (Chicago Magazine)2019/05 The Ghosts of Flight 191BY BRYAN SMITHSo the de facto expert’s response to Shel when he learned that Flight 191 was a DC-10? “I’m not going to get on that plane.” “You’ve been reading too much crap,” Shel said. What Gonzales had been reading about the DC-10 was not crap. Specifically, he’d learned how McDonnell Douglas was in dire financial straits and had set up an incentive program to save money at virtually any cost. No thanks. He’d stay home.2019/05--https://www.chicagomag.com/Chicago-Magazine/May-2019/The-Ghosts-of-Flight-191/Chicago Tribune2015/05/24 American Airlines Flight 191 still haunts. By Cory Franklin [not a paranormal/ghosts piece]http //www chicagotribune com/news/opinion/commentary/ct-american-airlines-ohare-crash-flight-191-hospital-perspec-0525-jm-20150522-story htmlExcerpt: Suddenly, as the massive jet departed the runway, its left engine fell off, disabling critical flight systems. The plane rolled and quickly plummeted to Earth, igniting its full jet fuel tanks, creating a huge explosion and fireball visible for miles in the azure sky. On the ground, the grisly inferno resembled a battlefield. Except for 9/11, the crash of 191 remains the worst air disaster in American history — all 271 people on the plane and two people on the ground were killed instantly. Almost all were burned beyond recognition.2015/05/24--http //www chicagotribune com/news/opinion/commentary/ct-american-airlines-ohare-crash-flight-191-hospital-perspec-0525-jm-20150522-story html2015/05/24 American Airlines Ohare Crash Flight 191 Hospital Perspective. By Cory Franklin 2015/05/24--http //www chicagotribune com/news/opinion/commentary/ct-american-airlines-ohare-crash-flight-191-hospital-perspec-0525-jm-20150522-story htmlContext Daily Herald2016/05/25 First responders recollect chilling visions of Flight 191 crash. By Madhu Krishnamurthy2016/05/25--http //www dailyherald com/article/20111014/news/710149919/FAA2019/12/21 NTSB-AAR-79-17 National Transportation Safety Board Bureau of AccidentInvestigation Washington, D.C. 20594https://www.faa.gov/about/initiatives/maintenance_hf/library/documents/media/human_factors_maintenance/american_airlines.inc._dc-10-10.n110aa.chicago-o%60hare_international_airport_chicago.illinois.may_25.1979.pdfNew York Times1979/07/13--Builder Says DC‐10 Pylon Crack Must Be a Maintenance Problem. By Richard Witkin; https://www.nytimes.com/1979/07/13/archives/builder-says-dc10-pylon-crack-must-be-a-maintenance-problem-main.htmlPrairie Ghosts 2016/05/25 LINGERING SPIRITS OF FLIGHT 191 - Prairie Ghosts2016/05/25--https //www prairieghosts com/flight htmlWashington Post1979/06/10 Rare Checks Made of DC10 Engine Flange. By Douglas B. Feaver https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1979/06/10/rare-checks-made-of-dc10-engine-flange/04b3201c-0500-495f-9bbb-16ea4d3b7adf/Excerpt: An important engine-mounting support that broke on the DC10 that crashed in Chicago was such a low-priority maintenance item that it probably was never inspected on many other DC10s before the May 25 accident, investigators have told The Washington Post.Furthermore, the "possible design problem" Federal Aviation Administrator Langhorne Bond cited when he grounded all U.S.-operated DC10 Wednesday centers on the failure of that support, known technically as a flange on the aft attach bulkhead of the pylon.The support was scheduled for a routine check under FAA-approved maintenance program only once every 20,000 flying hours - about 5 1/2 years of normal service. Because of the random-sampling method the FAA permits on many airplane parts, the supports on only 17 percent of the DC10 fleet had to be inspected at that 20,000-hour interval, according to investigators and the official FAA maintenance manual.The flange and the aft bulkhead on all DC10 pylons were ordered inspected by the FAA as a result of preliminary findings in the investigation of the Chicago crash, which killed 275 people. Cracks found in that flange ultimately led to the grounding of the planes.Before those inspections, the aft bulkhead on many of the 138 DC10s in the U.S. fleet had not had their first check on the part because they had not been flying long enough or because they were not included in the 17 percent. There were only 59 DC10s flying in the United States in 1972, for example.Although other areas of the plyon assembly - the hugh support system that is supposed to hold the engine to the wing - were inspected regularly, the aft bulkhead and the flange were concealed from view by a series of cover plates.Because of that, "It is quite possible the aft bulkhead was never seen" on many DC10s before the FAA order, said Frank Taylor, director of accident investigation for the National Transportation Safety Board.1979/06/10--https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1979/06/10/rare-checks-made-of-dc10-engine-flange/04b3201c-0500-495f-9bbb-16ea4d3b7adf/GHOSTS or Paranormal Activity Related to crashed Flight 191•Ghosts/paranormal activityoIs something left undiscovered or acknowledged? Not seen or seen right?oIs something covered up - corruption?oNearby alleged cemeteries - any connection? Apparently moved later for a fifth runwayoCould the fire have been put out sooner or better? If fire extinguising services had been closer or more available, more timely, better emergency preparedness given a certain radius of airport?oAnything we should know about the dogs in K-9 and their trainers? Did any of the crew know the dogs before the crash? Were K-9 operators lying about anything involving the crash or its victims?oWas there any corruption at American Airlines that the captain and/or crew knew about and had been apprised of (just been made aware of/papers among personal possessions at home, office or in briefcase, etc), in the middle of reading about or investigating? Did any of it have to do with company culture involving engineering, repairs, maintenance, non-authorized repair changes (ECO’s), secrecy, slop, cover-upsoIs there any chance a few people survived and it was covered up? Some names of Victims: Judith and Sheldon Wax (she a book writer with a book on middle-age recently out, he an editor of Playboy, planned to go to American Booksellers Association convention in Los Angeles; Mary Sheridan and Vicky Chen Haider; Leonard Stogel; Itzhak “Ben” Bentovj;Francis Gemme; pilot Walter Lux, copilot James Dillard -- see Chicago Mag); A hangar at O’Hare served as a temporary morgue.”Some key points:Apparently a ghost of a man is seen around a telephone booth off and on over a 20 year period, finishing up a conversation before going toward the gate he would have gotten on the plane“Steaming Man” someone who smells like burning petroDogs barking as if sensitive to spirits ie nearby K-9training facilitywails and moans from the field where they met their end.Knocks were heard on doors with no one there, but stopped as the area of the crash site was being finalizedNearby cemeteries seemed to show increased signs of paranormal activityA couple of graveyards allegedly were in the area - under the later built fifth runway“Before the cemeteries of Rest Haven and St. Johannes were moved to make way for the new runaway at O’Hare, mourners reported feeling touches on their shoulders and arms and whispers and sounds after the crash, as if the victims were drawn naturally their to a place of rest, despite the whoosh of departing flights overhead.” From Chicago Hauntings-2019https://chicagohauntings.com/2019/05/24/531/Note from PF 2021/02/19: you might check if Native American burial sites were in the area, the place used to be a rural area, before the Douglas factory came in, some locals tried to stop it to protect the rural aspects. It is possible old-timers knew something about the area.Prairie Ghosts: LINGERING SPIRITS OF FLIGHT 191 Prairie Ghosts https //www prairieghosts com/flight htmlPERSONS IN CRASHSomeone with paranormal possible background:Chicago Tribune2020/05/27 Faces of the victims of Flight 191 By KORI RUMORE AND JONATHON BERLIN2020/05/27--https://www.chicagotribune.com/history/ct-viz-met-flight-191-victims-profiles-htmlstory.htmlExcerpt: Itzhak Bentov WAYLAND, MASS. : The 55-year-old native of Czechoslovakia was a scientist and inventor. He had been hired by Boston's major hospitals to create medical diagnostic equipment. At the time of his death, Bentov was traveling to California, where he had been set to present his ideas on science and mysticism to a group of Japanese scientists. He had written a book on these subjects titled, "Stalking the Wild Pendulum: The Mechanics of Consciousness." He was survived by his wife and a daughter.Sheldon WaxNew York Times1979/08/19 Editor in DC‐10 Crash Ruled Dead Though Body Was Not Identifiedhttps://www.nytimes.com/1979/08/19/archives/editor-in-dc10-crash-ruled-dead-though-body-was-not-identified.htmlCHICAGO, Aug. 18 (UPI) — Sheldon Wax, the managing editor of Playboy magazine who apparently died in the crash of an American Airlines DC‐10 May 25, has been declared legally dead though his body was never identified.Judge Joseph Schneider of Circuit Court here has approved a petition filed by Cook County's Medical Examiner, Dr. Robert J. Stein, to issue a death certificate for Mr. Wax.The body of Judith Wax, the writer and poet who was the editor's wife and who accompanied him on the plane, has been identified.https://www.nytimes.com/1979/08/19/archives/editor-in-dc10-crash-ruled-dead-though-body-was-not-identified.htmlPeggyFOX 47 Newshttps[colon]//www[dot]youtube[dot]com/watch?v=mXssaeCDr8IMAN DID NOT GET ON PLANEJames GillianChicago man says last minute change in 1979 kept him off doomed planehttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OdutjTE8uVcVARIOUS FLIGHT 191’s with crashes or issuesUNEXPLAINED MYSTERIESThe strange mystery of flight 191, and the 5 times it crashed.December 2, 2020 | A Strange Mystery | Strange Storieshttps://coolinterestingstuff.com/the-strange-mystery-of-flights-191Flight 191 doesn’t refer to a specific crash but to incidents that have plagued a range of flights numbered 191. In fact, there have been so many catastrophes that, much like hotel owners who refuse to have a 13th floor, some superstitious airlines have completely done away with the number “191.”Since the 1960s, five flights with the number “191? have ended in fatal crashes, including the worst aircraft disaster in American history: American Airlines Flight 191, which killed 273 people.Most recently, in 2012, JetBlue Airways Flight 191 made headlines after the pilot went crazy during the flight and started ranting about Jesus, terrorists, and 9/11. He was kicked out of the cockpit by the co-pilot and subdued by passengers. Later, he was put in a mental hospital.Although the misfortune of flights ending in 191 is likely a coincidence, numerologists have had a field day trying to decipher the hidden meaning of the numbers.Strange, but true …..https://coolinterestingstuff.com/the-strange-mystery-of-flights-191WHAT HAPPENED - ENGINEERING FAILURE OF ENGINE AND HYDRAULIC, ELECTRICAL SYSTEMSee Av Stop article below - it is shown in more detail thereFAAFAA2019/12/21 NTSB-AAR-79-17 National Transportation Safety Board Bureau of AccidentInvestigation Washington, D.C. 20594https://www.faa.gov/about/initiatives/maintenance_hf/library/documents/media/human_factors_maintenance/american_airlines.inc._dc-10-10.n110aa.chicago-o%60hare_international_airport_chicago.illinois.may_25.1979.pdfNASA Overview of What Happened - 1979 AA Flt 191 CrashNASA2010/07/11 Deadly Efficiency: American Airlines Flight 191 Leadership ViTS Meeting. Bryan O’ConnorChief, Safety and Mission Assurance, Wilson B. Harkins, Deputy Chief, Safety and Mission Assurance2010/07/11--https://sma.nasa.gov/docs/default-source/safety-messages/safetymessage-2010-07-11-americanairlinesflight191-vits.pdf?sfvrsn=6Excerpt: American Airlines devised an Engineering Change Order (ECO) thatreduced the number of wire-disconnects and the number of manhours needed for the job.•The ECO called for disconnecting the engine and pylon as a singleunit and then lowering the unit with a forklift.•American Airlines instituted the ECO even though McDonnellDouglas reviewed the procedure and advised against itMIT Graduate Student’s Detailed ReviewMSW: MIT: Knowing When to Stop: The Investigation of Flight 191. Mara Vatz (2016)https://cmsw.mit.edu/wp/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/212446939-Mara-Vatz-Knowing-When-to-Stop-The-Investigation-of-Flight-191.pdfExcerpt: On May 25, 1979, an American Airlines DC-10 crashed just after taking off from Chicago's O'Hare Airport. It was the worst crash in U.S. history at the time, having killed all 271 people on board and two people on the ground.Arriving at the scene of a plane crash is akin to walking into a play during thethird act: most of the story has already played itself out. The crash is the climax of acomplex and nuanced plot with hundreds of characters and no clear beginning or end.Nevertheless, investigators from the National Transportation Safety Board areresponsible for reconstructing the story from the evidence. They must study thecharacters and unearth the storyline and all of its twists and turns, and at the endhttps //cmsw mit edu/wp/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/212446939-Mara-Vatz-Knowing-When-to-Stop-The-Investigation-of-Flight-191 pdfCRANES - Overall Contexts of usage in plane engine repair and maintenance - general informationThe reason this section on cranes is is put under 1979 AA Flt 191 Crash is because a forklift was used instead of a crane, and as such was listed by crash investigators as a reason for inadequate handling of a fragile area of the plane. Because things were not placed perfectly in that area, it set up a weakness that spurred a crack. This crack led to the engine falling off and the subsequent fatal crash. A Crane would have allowed more finesse and accuracy in place one part against another before securing them. In addition, one part was lodged against another that was not supposed to be like that. The area in question was the pylon securement to the wing. NASA-2010 has the best pictorial and explanation seen so far, along with an image of a forklift holding the pylon-engine assembly.Smart-Rig utility cranes help aircraft part repairs, engine or component maintenance and manufacturing go quickly and safely. These MRO floor cranes are often used to handle aircraft engines and control surfaces, frequently within tight work areas, repair inlet cowls, reveser, flap, slats, etc. Used in private and commercial airline companies.Microcranes® Aircraft Cranes, Floor Crane Hoists, Portable ...www smartrigcranes com/aircraft.php---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Av Stop gives a pretty complete run-down of what happened, and is included here in more detail:AvstopEngine Separation Causes American Airlines Flight 191 To Crash Killing All Onboard...The NTSB determined that the damage to the left wing engine pylon had occurred during an earlier engine change at the American Airlines aircraft maintenance facility in Tulsa, Oklahoma on March 29 and 30, 1979. The evidence came from the flange, a critical part of the pylon assembly...By Mike Mitchellhttp://avstop.com/news/engine_separation_causes_american_airlines_flight_191_to_crash.htmEngine Separation Causes American Airlines Flight 191 To Crash Killing All OnboardBy Mike MitchellAt 15:02, the flight was cleared for takeoff and began its takeoff roll down the runway. The rotation sequence was said to be normal until the number one engine and pylon assembly, and about 3 feet of the left wing leading edge, separated from the aircraft, flipping over the top of the wing and landing on the runway. Air traffic controller Ed Rucker, along with other witnesses, observed the aircraft continue to climb to about 300 feet above ground level, while spewing a trail of white vapor of leaking fuel and hydraulic fluid.The pilots were aware that the number one engine had failed, but they could not have known it had fallen off the plane, because the wings and engines were not visible from the cockpit of their aircraft, and no one in the control tower informed the flight crew of what they had seen. Investigators subsequently found that the flight crew thought engine one had only failed, not separated from the aircraft.The first officer raised the nose of the jet up to 14 degrees, thus reducing the airspeed from 165 knots (306 km/h), to the required V2 speed of 153 knots (283 km/h), specified in the emergency procedure for engine failure during takeoff. However, the engine separation had severed lines which contained hydraulic fluid, used for controlling the aircraft's leading edge wing slats for the outboard portion of the left wing.That failure caused that section of the slats to retract under air load, and the slats would have become inoperable because of the loss of the hydraulic fluid. The slat retraction increased the stall speed of the left wing to a speed that was at least 6 knots higher than the prescribed V2 speed, at which the plane was then flying, and thus the left wing stalled.The aircraft then entered a situation called asymmetric lift, when one wing is stalled and the other is still flying. This caused the jet to roll sharply to the left, forcing it into a steep dive, before the aircraft crashed into an open field approximately 4,600 ft (1,400 m) from the end of the runway, striking a hangar at Ravenswood Airport. The fuselage cut a trench into the empty former airfield and the large amount of jet fuel generated a huge fireball. The plume of smoke could be seen from the downtown Chicago Loop.All of the 271 on board were killed by the impact and subsequent fire. Two employees at a repair garage were also killed and two more severely burned. Three residents were injured and five trailers and several automobiles were damaged in a nearby trailer park when wreckage from the jet was thrown by the force of the impact towards them.Engine SeparationFrom an examination of the detached engine, the NTSB concluded that the pylon attachment had been damaged before the crash. Investigators looked at the plane's maintenance history and found that its most recent service was eight weeks before the crash, in which engine number one had been removed from the aircraft, however the pylon, the rigging holding the engine onto the wing, had been damaged during the procedure. The original procedure called for removal of the engine prior to the removal of the engine pylon, but American Airlines had begun to use a procedure that saved approximately 200 man-hours per aircraft and "more importantly from a safety standpoint, it would reduce the number of disconnects (i.e., hydraulic and fuel lines, electrical cables, and wiring) from 72 to 27."The new procedure involved mechanics removing the engine with the pylon as one unit, rather than the engine, and then the pylon. A large forklift was used to support the engine while it was being detached from the wing - a procedure that was found to be extremelly difficult to execute successfully, due to difficulties with holding the engine assembly straight while it was being removed.The field service representative from the manufacturer, McDonnell-Douglas, said it would "not encourage this procedure due to the element of risk" and had so advised American. However, McDonnell-Douglas "does not have the authority to either approve or disapprove the maintenance procedures of its customers."The accident investigation also concluded that the design of the pylon and adjacent surfaces made the parts difficult to service and prone to damage by maintenance crews. The NTSB reported that there were two different approaches to the one-step procedure: using an overhead hoist or using a forklift. United Airlines used a hoist; American and Continental Airlines used a forklift. According to the NTSB, all the cases "wherein impact damage was sustained and cracks found involved the use of the forklift."Under the procedure American used, if the forklift was in the wrong position, the engine would rock like a see-saw and jam against the pylon attachment points. The forklift operator was guided by hand and voice signals; the position had to be spot-on or could cause damage. Management was aware of this. The modification to the aircraft involved in Flight 191 did not go smoothly. Engineers started to disconnect the engine and pylon, but changed shift halfway through. When work continued, the pylon was jammed on the wing and the forklift had to be repositioned.This was important evidence because, in order to disconnect the pylon from the wing, a bolt had to be removed so that the flange could strike the clevis. The procedure used caused an indentation that damaged the clevis pin assembly and created an indentation in the housing of the self-aligning bearing, which in turn weakened the structure sufficiently to cause a small stress fracture. The fracture went unnoticed for several flights, getting worse with each flight. During Flight 191's takeoff, enough force was generated to finally cause the pylon to fail. At the point of rotation, the engine detached and was flipped over the top of the wing.The findings of the investigation by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) were released on December 21, 1979:The National Transportation Safety Board determines that the probable cause of this accident was the asymmetrical stall and the ensuing roll of the aircraft because of the uncommanded retraction of the left wing outboard leading edge slats and the loss of stall warning and slat disagreement indication systems resulting from maintenance-induced damage leading to the separation of the No. 1 engine and pylon assembly at a critical point during takeoff. The separation resulted from damage by improper maintenance procedures which led to failure of the pylon structure. Contributing to the-cause of the accident were the vulnerability of the design of the pylon attach points to maintenance damage; the vulnerability of the design of the leading edge slat system to the damage which produced asymmetry; deficiencies in Federal Aviation Administration surveillance and reporting systems which failed to detect and prevent the use of improper maintenance procedures; deficiencies in the practices and communications among the operators, the manufacturer, and the FAA which failed to determine and disseminate the particulars regarding previous maintenance damage incidents; and the intolerance of prescribed operational procedures to this unique emergency.The NTSB determined that the damage to the left wing engine pylon had occurred during an earlier engine change at the American Airlines aircraft maintenance facility in Tulsa, Oklahoma on March 29 and 30, 1979. The evidence came from the flange, a critical part of the pylon assembly. http://avstop.com/news/engine_separation_causes_american_airlines_flight_191_to_crash.htmSee Notes on Ghosts: 2021 and 2019Updates: 2021/02/22 some personal notes added to “Ghosts/Comments” on this page; 2021/02/20 191 Crash Highlight Section added to earlier smaller inserts area on 191; Chicagomag-2019 was added. 2021/02/04 This section had been moved from rivergold dot net recently. There was some deferred editing to get it more in line witht he format on policefactor dot com. Most, if not all, of the links have been deactivated on this page as part of an ongoing project to deactivate links all throughout the website.
AVIATION-6b CRASHES/HISTORICAL FOCUS cont.1979 AMERICAN AIRLINES FLIGHT 191 •PERSONS ON BOARDoCrew▪Captain/Pilot Last Minute Switch▪Female equal rights stewardess just got job back after maternity layoff▪Male steward who wanted to be a AA steward/stewardess recruiteroPassengers▪Several Writers bound for Writer’s Conference in LA▪Some American military veterans▪Group of connected people▪Some unidentified bodies per dental forensics, etc.▪One took AA by default always preferring/using United Airways which was on strike thenoSome people chose not to go on Flt 191▪Playboy writer Gonzalez▪Bionic WOman actress Lindsay Wagner and mother▪Yet another or others▪Fellow pilot who last-minute switched with Captain•HISTORICAL OVERVIEWoEra as a WholeoAmerican AirlinesoMcDonnell▪DC-10oO’Hare AirportoBackground: 1970s Aviation Era•WHAT HAPPENED - ENGINEERING FAILUREoFAA report - December 1979oNASA-2010 review - Forklift: NASA overview of what happened 1979 to AA Flt 191 (good run-down)oContinental Airlines had done same wrongful repair using forklift instead of crane with nearly identical effects, did not report to FAAoCranes in general: Engineering, Repair, Maintenance - Cranes•GHOSTS/paranormal activity•Issues of other Flight 191’s with problems•Av Stop article detail - gives good run-down of what happened and issues