CARTELS-3/How to Stop
Cartels-4 Female Gang Members/Traffickers
Cartels-5 Tunnels and Smuggling
Cartels-7 Links List
see also Cartels-New Mexico
DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE
On International Narco-Terrorism/Venezuela
See also Department of Justice separate section
Definition of Narcoterrorism
https colon //en dot wikipedia dot org/wiki/Narcoterrorism
Justice dot gov
2020/03/26 Attorney General Barr and DOJ Officials Announce Significant Law Enforcement Actions Relating to
Includes important video. Attorney General Barr. FARC. Nicolás Maduro Moros and 14 current and former
Venezuelan officials charged with narco-terrorism, corruption, drug trafficking and other criminal charges.
Drug Trade news before DOJ announcement in March 2020
2019/04/17 CNN uncovers Venezuela's multi-billion dollar drug trade. Nick Paton Walsh International
Cocaine trafficking from Venezuela to the US is soaring, even as the country collapses. And the US and other
regional officials say it's Venezuela's own military and political elite who are facilitating the passage of drugs
in and out of the country on hundreds of tiny, unmarked planes.
Venezuela Oil and gas
Venezuela crisis: US blacklists Russian oil firm for helping Maduro
The US has sought to increase financial pressure on Venezuela by blacklisting a subsidiary of Russia's state-
controlled Rosneft oil giant. The move freezes any US-held assets of the Switzerland-based Rosneft Trading SA and
its chairman, Didier Casimiro.The firm is accused of helping President Nicolás Maduro to evade US sanctions on
Venezuela's oil industry.The US accuses Mr Maduro of leading a corrupt and brutal regime, a charge he has
2019/07/14 Opinion: China will determine future of Venezuela. By Carlos Eduardo Pina
https colon //www dot aljazeera dot com/indepth/opinion/china-determine-future-venezuela-
There are a number of reasons why Beijing continues to back Maduro's government despite suffering
2019/02/09 Hezbolla is in Venezuela to stay: Regime change in Caracas won’t change the country’s
problematic relationship with the terrorist group. By Colin P. Clarke
Excerpt: Responding to a question on current instability in Venezuela and the presence of terrorist groups in
the region, specifically Lebanese Hezbollah, U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo confirmed in a recent
interview that the Trump administration believes that the “Party of God,” as Hezbollah is known, maintains
“active cells” in Venezuela. He went on to say that “Iranians are impacting the people of Venezuela,” because
Hezbollah is trained, financed, and equipped by Tehran.
Hezbollah has long maintained a presence in Latin America, especially in the infamous Tri-Border Area, a
semi-lawless region where Argentina, Paraguay, and Brazil converge. But even beyond the Tri-Border Area,
Hezbollah is well-entrenched in Venezuela, where the Shiite terrorist group has long worked to establish a
vast infrastructure for its criminal activities, including drug trafficking, money laundering, and illicit
smuggling. For example, Margarita Island, located off the coast of Venezuela, is a well-known criminal hotbed
where Hezbollah members have established a safe haven. Under the regime of former Venezuelan President
Hugo Chavez, the government took a more active approach to offering sanctuary to Venezuela-based
supporters of Hezbollah.
More controversial than what Pompeo said, however, should have been what he implied—namely, that
regime change would rid Venezuela of Hezbollah. Whatever the benefits of replacing the current Venezuelan
regime with Washington’s preferred alternative, there’s reason to doubt that it would change the country’s
problematic relationship with the terrorist group.
Hezbollah has a long and sordid history in Venezuela. A cocaine-smuggling ring active throughout the 2000s
led by a Hezbollah-linked Lebanese national named Chekry Harb—a drug trafficker and money laundering
kingpin who went by the nickname “Taliban”—used Panama and Venezuela as critical hubs in an operation
that sent narcotics from Colombia to the United States, West Africa, the Middle East, and Europe. Proceeds
from the cocaine-trafficking ring were laundered into Colombian pesos or Venezuelan bolivars, with
Hezbollah netting between 8 and 14 percent of profits….
…There is also the issue of Iran. Hezbollah is backed by a regime in Tehran that provides it with upward of
$700 million annually, according to some estimates. Venezuela serves as Iran’s entry point into Latin America,
a foothold the Iranians are unlikely to cede without putting up a fight.Venezuela serves as Iran’s entry point
into Latin America, a foothold the Iranians are unlikely to cede without putting up a fight. Moreover, Russia
retains a vested interest in propping up Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro and keeping him in power,
given the longstanding relationship between the two countries. Moscow recently warned the United States
against intervening in Venezuela militarily. Further, after cooperating closely in Syria, Hezbollah is now a
known quantity to the Kremlin and an organization that President Vladimir Putin could view as an asset that,
at the very least, will not interfere with Russia’s designs to extend its influence in the Western Hemisphere.
If the Maduro regime is ultimately ousted from power, it will likely have a negative impact on Hezbollah in
Venezuela. After all, the group’s tentacles extend into the upper reaches of Venezuela’s current
government—Tareck El Aissami, the minister of industries and national production, was designated by the
U.S. Treasury Department under a counter-narcotics authority and allegedly has a close relationship with
Yet on balance, Hezbollah has deep roots in Venezuela, and completely expelling the group—no matter how
high a priority for the Trump administration—remains unlikely. The best-case scenario for Washington could
be an ascendant Guaidó administration that agrees to combat Hezbollah’s influence—if the new government
is willing to accept a U.S. presence in the country to begin training Venezuelan forces in the skills necessary
to counter terrorism and transnational organized criminal networks with strong ties to Venezuelan society.
But that scenario, of course, is dependent on the United States offering such assistance in the first place.
Colin P. Clarke is a senior research fellow at the Soufan Center and an assistant teaching professor in the
Institute for Politics & Strategy at Carnegie Mellon University. Twitter: @ColinPClarke
Venezuelan Communists say Maduro government not responding to workers’ demands
November 9, 2018 12:48 PM CDT BY PAUL DOBSON
https colon //peoplesworld dot org/article/venezuelan-communists-say-maduro-government-not-
Presidential Executive Order 2017
On Enforcing Federal Law with Respect to Transnational Criminal Organizations and Preventing International
Trafficking: National Security & Defense: Issued on: February 9, 2017
Excerpt: By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of
America, it is hereby ordered as follows:
Section 1. Purpose. Transnational criminal organizations and subsidiary organizations, including transnational
drug cartels, have spread throughout the Nation, threatening the safety of the United States and its citizens. These
organizations derive revenue through widespread illegal conduct, including acts of violence and abuse that exhibit
a wanton disregard for human life. They, for example, have been known to commit brutal murders, rapes, and
other barbaric acts.
These groups are drivers of crime, corruption, violence, and misery. In particular, the trafficking by cartels of
controlled substances has triggered a resurgence in deadly drug abuse and a corresponding rise in violent crime
related to drugs. Likewise, the trafficking and smuggling of human beings by transnational criminal groups risks
creating a humanitarian crisis. These crimes, along with many others, are enriching and empowering these
organizations to the detriment of the American people.
A comprehensive and decisive approach is required to dismantle these organized crime syndicates and restore
safety for the American people….
US Department of Justice
1998/05 Addressing Community Gang Problems:A Practical Guide
Research Gate dot net
2011/05 Gang Membership as a Turning point in the Life Course. By Chris Melde Michigan State University
Article (PDF Available) in Criminology 49(2):513 - 552 ·
Gang Research at ASU about Walter B. Miller
Results from the New Mexico Gang Threat Assessment: Prepared for: Project Safe Neighborhoods Task Force
District of New Mexico Prepared by: Danielle Albright, M.A.; Lisa Broidy, Ph.D.; Kristine Denman, M.A.
Journals Sage Pub
1993/05/01 Youth Gangs In Southern New Mexico: A Qualitative Analysis. G. Larry Mays
2019 Gangs of the El Paso–Juárez Borderland A History By Mike Tapia
Excerpt: This thought-provoking book examines gang history in the region encompassing West Texas,
Southern New Mexico, and Northern Chihuahua, Mexico. Known as the El Paso–Juárez borderland region, the
area contains more than three million people spanning 130 miles from east to west. From the badlands—the
historically notorious eastern Valle de Juárez—to the Puerto Palomas port of entry at Columbus, New Mexico,
this area has become more militarized and politicized than ever before. Mike Tapia examines this region by
exploring a century of historical developments through a criminological lens and by studying the diverse
subcultures on both sides of the law. Tapia looks extensively at the role of history and geography on criminal
subculture formation in the binational urban setting of El Paso–Juárez, demonstrating the region’s unique
context for criminogenic processes. He provides a poignant case study of Homeland Security and the
apparent lack of drug-war spillover in communities on the US-Mexico border.
No COLORS: 100 Ways To Stop Gangs From Taking Away Our Communities
by Bobby Kipper, Bud Ramey
Hacking: 10 Most Dangerous Cyber Gangs, Book 5 (audio book)
By: Alex Wagner
Narrated by: Matyas J
James Densley: How Gangs Work
2011/04/11 An Ethnography of Youth Violence, Palgrave Macmillan, St. Antony's Series
In the wake of the 2011 UK riots and the British government’s new American-style ‘war on gangs’, this book is the
definitive account of ‘how gangs work’. Based on two years of ethnographic fieldwork with gangs and drawing on
a variety of sources, How Gangs Work provides a vivid portrayal of gang life, but not as the British traditionally
James Densley deconstructs the mythology of gangs to make sense of the profiles and motivations of gang
members in straightforward, rational terms. How Gangs Work examines the vital processes of evolution,
organization, and recruitment within gangs and gangmembers’ instrumental and expressive uses of violence,
media, and technology. Special attention is paid to the role of gangs in the drugs trade and the relationship
between gangs and organized crime. Densley concludes with a critical appraisal of gang desistance and the
precarious future of gang prevention and intervention, with practical advice for practitioners, police and policy-
Gang Leader for a Day: A Rogue Sociologist Takes to the Streets (12.11.2007) Hardcover – December 11, 2007
by Sudhir Venkatesh
ARTICLES AND WEBSITES
Excerpt: Below are eight steps that are effective methods of controlling drugs and reducing drug-related harms.
(To download a copy of this as a PDF, click here.)
1. Shift Resources Into Programs That Work
2. Make Treatment Available on Request Like Any Other Health Service
3. Prevent Drug Abuse By Investing in American Youth and Providing Them with Accurate Information
4. Focus Law Enforcement Resources on the Most Dangerous and Violent Criminals
5. International Drug Control Efforts Should Be Demilitarized and Focus on Economic Development
6. Restore Justice to the US Justice System
7. Respect State's Rights and Allow New Approaches to Be Tried
8. Make Prevention of HIV and Other Blood Borne Diseases a Top Priority
Back to top
Shift Resources Into Programs That Work:
US drug control strategy has been approached primarily as a law enforcement issue. Police have done their jobs
with record arrests, drug seizures and record incarceration of drug offenders yet drug problems continue to
worsen. Expensive eradication and interdiction campaigns abroad have brought few results and many costs. Two-
thirds of the federal drug control budget continues to go to incarceration, interdiction and law enforcement
programs while treatment, prevention, research and education divide the remaining third. Government needs to
accept that the law enforcement paradigm will never work and shift to treating drug abuse as a health problem
with social and economic implications. The solutions are in public health approaches which focus on addicts and
abusers – not all users – as well as social services to reduce many of the root causes of abuse, economic strategies
to develop alternative markets and also control drug markets. The federal drug budget should recognize this by
shifting resources to prevention, treatment and education.
Click here for more info.
Back to top
Make Treatment Available on Request Like Any Other Health Service:
Making treatment services widely available undermines the drug market and reduces the harms from drug abuse.
Treatment needs to be defined broadly to not only include abstinence-based treatment but also easier access to
methadone and other alternative maintenance drugs. In addition it is important to provide mental health
treatment, as well as services for victims of sexual abuse, spousal abuse and child abuse in order to resolve the
underlying causes of addiction. Treatment also needs to be user friendly, i.e. designed to meet the needs of special
populations, especially women, children and minorities. Finally, it needs to be focused on abusers and addicts
rather than all drug users. The best way to accomplish this distinction is to allow people who need treatment to
choose it, rather than law enforcement choosing treatment for people who happen to get caught.
Click here for more info.
Back to top
Prevent Drug Abuse By Investing in American Youth and Providing Them with Accurate Information:
The most effective way to prevent adolescent drug abuse is to invest in youth and keep them interested and
involved in life. Government should increase funding for after school programs, mentor programs, skills
building/job training programs and summer job programs. The Higher Education Act provisions denying college
aid to students convicted of drug offenses should be repealed as barriers to education and employment are
counterproductive to preventing drug abuse. Education needs to be fact-based, accurate and taught by trained
educators and health professionals, not by police. Resources should be shifted away from ineffective programs like
the ONDCP media campaign and the DARE program and toward research to develop more effective drug
education approaches and programs to keep youth active.
Focus Law Enforcement Resources on the Most Dangerous and Violent Criminals:
Half of drug arrests in the United States are for marijuana offenses and possession cases. Low-level, non-violent
drug-using offenders dominate police time, waste the time of courts and fill US prisons. The drug war has resulted
in record-breaking prison populations giving the US the highest incarceration rate in the world. Arrest and
incarceration also have a devastating impact on individuals and families. The focus of the federal government in
drug enforcement should be large cases that cross international and state boundaries. Smaller cases that are intra
state should be left to the states. Law enforcement should stop wasting its limited resources on simple possession
charges. Small-time dealers who essentially sell to support their habit should be given the choice of treatment
instead of prison. Drug offenders, particularly marijuana, should be the lowest law enforcement priority while
violent criminals should be priority number one. All correctional systems in the US should be less restrictive in
granting parole to bona fide nonviolent drug prisoners at review time, less restrictive in granting compassionate
release and less restrictive in allowing family visits. These modest changes would give prisoners a motive for good
behavior to earn their way out of prison and back to their families and communities.
Travel Arsenal dot com
10 Ways to Stop Gangs Without Money!
Help children learn how to become centered.
Create a network of love and support.
Teach children the buddy system. Encourage them to listen to their self-protective instincts...
Include children in your home safety program:
Create a safe neighborhood. Join a neighborhood group or start one.
10 Ways to Stop Gangs Without Money! -
travelerarsenal.com/10-ways-to-stop-gangs-without-money/ [the website seems gone]
How Stuff Works: Street Gangs
Photo: Forming neighborhood groups to clean up graffiti and maintain the area can help to drive out gangs.
Excerpt: There is no easy way to stop gangs, because the underlying conditions that lead to gangs are complex.
Police crackdowns can temporarily lower gang influence….
A Literature Review on Gang Violence
Kittle, Jolene MS, RN, ACCNS-AG, CCRN, CEN, TCRN, CFRN
Journal of Trauma Nursing: July/August 2017 - Volume 24 - Issue 4 - p 270–279
Excerpt: Gangs and gang violence are a concerning cause of preventable injuries and death in the trauma
community. The number of gangs and gang members has been on an upward trend since 2003 with an estimated
30,000 gangs in the United States. This includes approximately 850,000 gang members. Trauma centers are in a
unique position to participate in the prevention of gang violence. This review compiles current, relevant literature
on gangs and gang violence covering the following topics: prevention/intervention, contributing influences, and
experiential reflections. The purpose of the literature review is to deepen understanding of gangs and gang
violence and potentiate further research in this area in order to help promote successful prevention efforts. Trauma
nurses can use this information in developing culturally sensitive, compassionate care and trauma centers will find
this useful in the development of injury prevention programs aimed at the reduction of gang and street violence.
The High School Journal
1995 The Choice for Gang Membership by Mexican-American Adolescents, Raymond L. Calabrese and Julio Noboa
The High School Journal, Vol. 78, No. 4, The Mexican-American Educational Experience (Apr. - May, 1995), pp. 226-235
Published by: University of North Carolina Press
Quora blog site Two posted answers shown below. Police Factor thought the answers held merit.
How to Stop Prison Gangs: an answer by Chuck Nelson, I deal with the post convicted.
Answered Nov 17 2017 ·
The best way to stop prison gangs is to put all of the gang members in a single prison (or prisons by affiliation) and never
move them. Make every effort to validate inmates and move them to the proper location as soon as possible. You need to
minimize contact with non-gang inmates to eliminate, or at least reduce, recruitment.
Managing Prisons/Security Threat Groups
Excerpt: Prisons are responsible for housing convicted inmates in a safe and secure environment. This also includes
identifying an inmate’s custody level, program needs, medical, mental health issues, and housing assignment. An
assessment is completed to determine if the inmate is involved with a gang and/or security threat group. This verification
can be completed in a variety of ways, including self-admission, gang tattoos, written materials, and other means. The
following questions need to be answered: Does the inmate pose a threat to other inmates and staff? Is the inmate
deemed an escape risk and/or security threat? Does the inmate require protection from other inmates, or pose a threat
to the safety, security, and good order of the prison? A compilation of the assessment allows for identifying proper
security level, housing assignment, program needs, and other.
We may ask why there is a concern for security threat groups. These security threat groups are involved in violating
various prison rules. This may consist of, but is not limited to, trafficking and trading in contraband, sexual acts and
exploitation, participating and ordering assaults on inmates and staff, disrupt activities, exhibit extreme violent acts, and
other. If left uncontrolled and not effectively managed, these violent actions can lead to serious disruption and even riots.
These groups pose a serious management problem and concern for prisons.
Why Do People End Up Back in Prison? Chuck Nelson, Correctional Officer in a Prison Hospital
Answered Oct 15, 2019 · Author has 754 answers and 738.7k answer views
Many inmates return because committing crime was what they did for a career (or serious hobby) before they finally got
a charge they couldn’t dodge and caught some prison time. When they get out, they go back to what they know. This is
especially true when they return to the area they grew up in. They start hanging out with the people they hung out with
prior to prison and get right back into trouble again. Placing an inmate in new surroundings on release and providing
them with support (employment help, housing, financial assistance) is the best way to prevent recidivism.
There are inmates that were not regular offenders before they did THE ONE CRIME that got them into prison. They will
become institutionalized because you have to in order to survive in a prison setting. This may lead them to a life of crime
after prison but it is less likely as prison does not necessarily give you the criminal mindset, it gives you the inmate
mindset. There are some similarities but learning how to sneak peanut butter out of the kitchen or light a cigarette with
steel wool are not the things that lead you into crime. Some of the things you learn in prison may even be helpful on the
street. For example, unless you are already the kind of person that likes to fight, you are going to have to learn conflict
resolution and mediation. THE ONE CRIME is usually murder so those guys are generally not getting out anyway. The
other guys that get caught for a single crime with no background history are often sex offenders because you get caught
for most sex offenses you don’t get back on the street for a long time. Sex offenders are usually repeat offenders, they
just don’t get caught because they are abusing within their family and the abuse goes unreported.
You ask any inmate and they will tell you they don’t want to be locked up. What they don’t say is that if retaining their
freedom means they have to live the life of a citizen, they are going to take their chances with get arrested and
Research Gate dot net
2011/05 Gang Membership as a Turning point in the Life Course. By Chris Melde Michigan State University
Article (PDF Available) in Criminology 49(2):513 - 552 ·
Getting Out of Gangs, Staying Out of Gangs
GANG INTERVENTION AND DESISTENCE STRATEGIES
National Gang Center
Institute for Intergovernmental Research
Post Office Box 12729
Tallahassee, FL 32317
Phone (850) 385-0600 • Fax (850) 386-5356
Michelle Arciaga Young, National Gang Center
Victor Gonzalez, Houston Mayor’s Anti-Gang Office
Updates: 2021/09/28 some editing and organizing; 2020/04/13 Narco-Terrorism/Venezuela added; 2020/04/10 Getting Out of Gangs/Staying
Out/Gonzalez/Houston added; Research Gate-Chris Melde/Turning Point added; 2019/11/02 csdp common sense 8 steps website link added; Page